Monday, February 24, 2014
Sunday, February 9, 2014
STUDY ALERT: The Entire Intelligence-Expertise Debate
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Thursday, January 30, 2014
Brain Area for Decision-Making and Planning is "Uniquely Human" - D-brief
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Do CAS Planning Subtests Measure Planning or Processing Speed?
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Tuesday, January 28, 2014
Carroll's Three Stratum Theory of Cognitive Abilities, Re-Visualized
// Assessing Psyche, Engaging Gauss, Seeking Sophia
Path diagrams are wonderfully economical and precise methods of communicating the structure of a model. For example, Carroll's (1993) Three Stratum Theory of Cognitive Abilities is usually shown with a diagram like this:
However, this models implies things that might not be strictly true. For example, it is possible that not all of the broad abilities (including g) are distinct entities. It is possible that some of them, to some degree, are what I have called hierarchical abstractions. The basic idea is that there might not be some general ability that applies to many different tasks. It is possible that certain distinct abilities tend to be used together in the same kinds of tasks, often forming a functional unity. For example, inductive and deductive (sequential) reasoning are rarely used separately. Rather, they are used in tandem to reach logical conclusions (in a syllogism, for example). Thus, it is reasonable to talk about a superordinate category of fluid reasoning even though it consists of distinct processes. So, in a much abbreviated form, Gf and Gc can conceptualized like so:
Of course, all the narrow abilities in the diagram might be abstractions themselves, consisting of many different sub-components.
I thought that it might be helpful to re-draw Carroll's diagram in a way that does not commit us to thinking of the various constructs in the hierarchy as distinct abilities:
Carroll, J.B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. New York : Cambridge University Press.
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Saturday, January 18, 2014
Fluid intelligence is the ability to solve unfamiliar problems using logical reasoning. It requires the effortful control of attention to understand what the problem is and to work toward a logically sound answer. People with high fluid intelligence are able to figure out solutions to problems with very little instruction. Once they have found a good solution to a problem, they are able to see how it might apply to other similar problems. People with low fluid intelligence typically need hands-on, structured instruction to solve unfamiliar problems. Once they have mastered a certain skill or solution to a problem, they may have trouble seeing how it might apply in other situations. That is, their newfound knowledge does not generalize easily to other situations.
— Schneider & McGrew (2013, p. 772)
Crystallized intelligence is acquired knowledge. When people solve important problems for the first time, they typically remember how they did it. The second time the problem is encountered, the solution is retrieved from memory rather than recreated anew using fluid intelligence. However, much of what constitutes crystallized intelligence is not the memory of solutions we personally have generated but the acquisition of the cumulative wisdom of those who have gone before us. That is, we are the intellectual heirs of all of the savants and geniuses throughout history. What they achieved with fluid intelligence adds to our crystallized intelligence. This is why even an average engineer can design machines that would have astounded Galileo, or even Newton. It is why ordinary high school students can use algebra to solve problems that baffled the great Greek mathematicians (who, for lack of a place-holding zero, could multiply large numbers only very clumsily).
Crystallized intelligence, broadly speaking, consists of one's understanding of the richness and complexity of one's native language and the general knowledge that members of one's culture consider important. Of all the broad abilities, crystallized intelligence is by far the best single predictor of academic and occupational success. A person with a rich vocabulary can communicate more clearly and precisely than a person with an impoverished vocabulary. A person with a nuanced understanding of language can understand and communicate complex and subtle ideas better than a person with only a rudimentary grasp of language. Each bit of knowledge can be considered a tool for solving new problems. Each fact learned enriches the interconnected network of associations in a person's memory. Even seemingly useless knowledge often has hidden virtues. For example, few adults know who Gaius and Tiberius Gracchus were (Don't feel bad if you do not!). However, people who know the story of how they tried and failed to reform the Roman Republic are probably able to understand local and national politics far better than equally bright people who do not. It is not the case that ignorance of the Gracchi brothers dooms anyone to folly. It is the case that a well-articulated story from history can serve as a template for understanding similar events in the present.
— Schneider & McGrew (2013, pp. 772–773)
The pictures are previously unpublished (and not to be taken too seriously).
Schneider, W. J. & McGrew, K. S. (2013). Cognitive performance models: Individual differences in the ability to process information. In S. Ortiz & D. Flanagan (Sec. Eds.), Section 9: Assessment Theory, in B. Irby, G. Brown, & R. Laro-Alecio & S. Jackson (Vol Eds.), Handbook of educational theories (pp. 767–782). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Monday, November 11, 2013
US courts see rise in defendants blaming their brains for criminal acts
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Sunday, September 8, 2013
Neural Basis of the Perception and Estimation of Time, Merchant, Hugo; Harrington, Deborah L.; Meck, Warren H.
Kevin McGrew, PhD
Director, Institute for Applied Psychometrics
Thursday, August 1, 2013
The person in the stern of the kayak is responsible for the rudder (steering) by using foot pedals to adjust direction. As this video shows, and if you listen carefully you can hear Kevin gently reminding me, I need to mind my duties. It's not easy being master and commander AND photographer!! haha.
Tuesday, July 30, 2013
Monday, July 29, 2013
Wednesday, July 3, 2013
Thursday, June 20, 2013
Saturday, May 25, 2013
Thursday, April 11, 2013
Saturday, April 6, 2013
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On Apr 6, 2013, at 2:53 PM, Kevin McGrew <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote:
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